Cancer Prevention

Prevention is to eliminate or minimize exposure to factors of cancer and includes reducing individual susceptibility to the effects of these causes.

Tobacco in all forms is responsible for about 30% of all cancer deaths. Uncontrolled, smoking will cause more than 10 million deaths from cancer (primarily lung cancer) in the coming decade.

Obesity is involved in esophageal, colorectal, breast, endometrium and kidney. It is recommended that adults oversee weight control and avoid increase in weight by reducing caloric intake and increasing physical activity.

Physical activity has a protective effect in reducing the risk of colorectal cancer.

The composition of the diet is important because fruits and vegetables may have a protective effect by decreasing the risk for certain cancers such as cancer of the mouth, esophagus, gastric and colorectal. High intake of red meat or processed red meat was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer.

Alcohol consumption increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver and breast.

There is close association between some infections and certain cancers:

– Between hepatitis B infection and liver cancer,

– Human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer.

Screening for colon cancer by THO (occult blood test) reduce both incidence and mortality, presumably through the detection and removal of polyps.

Cytological examination of the cervix (the test BP) identification and excision of precancerous lesions cause a dramatic reduction in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer.

Chemoprevention involves the use of natural or synthetic substances to reduce the risk of cancer or to reduce the chances of relapse of cancer.

There are 5 classes of chemoprotective agents that have shown promise in clinical trials:

1 – tamoxifen (estrogen receptor modulator)

2 – nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

3 – calcium compounds

4 – glucocorticoids

5 – retinoids

1. Tamoxifen reduced by 49% cases of breast cancer in women at high risk. It is associated with serious side effects such as endometrial cancer and bleeding disorders; compare the effect of tamoxifen currently raloxifene.

Trials are underway to see whether administration of finasteride in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia may prevent prostate cancer in men over 55 years.

2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin, piroxicam, celecoxib and sulindac are studied in terms of protective effect in people with a family history of polyps or colon cancer. In 1999 F .DA approved the use of Celecoxib in familial polyposis adenomatous polyps to reduce the number. It is unclear whether reducing the number of polyps will reduce the number of new cases and deaths from colorectal cancer. Celecoxib was studied in trials in individuals with increased risk for esophageal cancer and bladder.

3. Calcium compounds are studied in the prevention of colon cancer, mainly in patients diagnosed with polyps or colon cancer.

4. Budesonide is a glucocorticoid used to treat asthma. It is used to prevent the progression of precancerous lesions in lung tissue. It utilizes spray form.

5. Retinoids are used in the prevention of cervical cancer, lung, mouth, bladder.

Prevention of lung cancer

Tobacco in any form is the major cause of lung cancer. Passive smoking is also involved in producing lung cancer. Some products like nicotine gum, nicotine spray may be useful to people trying to stop smoking.

Beta carotene increases the risk of lung cancer in smokers.

Chemoprevention is not yet standard therapy.

Breast Cancer Prevention

1. Tamoxifen is a drug that blocks the effect of estrogen on cancer cells. It was shown that tamoxifen lowers the risk of breast cancer in women at increased risk.

Fenretinide and raloxifene are two other drugs studied as breast cancer chemoprotective agents.

2. high fat diet increases the risk of breast cancer. It is unknown whether a low-fat diet prevents breast cancer. Exercise in particular young women, may decrease hormone levels and may help reduce the risk of breast cancer.

3. Weight gain in particular after natural menopause and / or age 60 years may increase the risk of breast cancer.

4. Prophylactic mastectomy in women at high risk with family history of breast cancer, bilateral mastectomy reduces the risk of breast cancer.

Prevention of cervical cancer

1. Background screening women who have not had a cytology BP (Babes Papanicolaou) regularly have an increased risk of cancer of the cervix. Regular gynecological exam for conducting cytology BP They are the most important in the prevention of cervical cancer. Abnormal changes in the cervix can be detected by cytology BP and treated before cancer.

2. Sexual History Women who began sexual activity before age 16 and women with multiple sexual partners are at increased risk of infection with HPV virus (human papilloma virus) and of developing cervical cancer. We recommend regular gynecological exam at the onset of sexual activity or at age 18. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases reduces cervical cancer risk.

3. About 30 HPV infection human papilloma virus types are sexually transmitted and can infect the cervix. Infection of the cervix with HPV is the primary risk factor for cervical cancer. However, although HPV infection is very common only a small percentage of women with untreated HPV will develop cervical cancer.

4. Smoking may be associated with an increased risk of cancer of the cervix. There are studies showing and otherwise.

5. Diet carotene, vitamin C and E may reduce the risk of cervical cancer

6. The education of women on risk factors can lead to changes in behavior and lifestyle to determine a decreased exposure to these factors.