Prevention is to eliminate or minimize exposure to factors of cancer and includes reducing individual susceptibility to the effects of these causes.
Tobacco in all forms is responsible for about 30% of all cancer deaths. Uncontrolled, smoking will cause more than 10 million deaths from cancer (primarily lung cancer) in the coming decade.
Obesity is involved in esophageal, colorectal, breast, endometrium and kidney. It is recommended that adults oversee weight control and avoid increase in weight by reducing caloric intake and increasing physical activity.
Physical activity has a protective effect in reducing the risk of colorectal cancer.
The composition of the diet is important because fruits and vegetables may have a protective effect by decreasing the risk for certain cancers such as cancer of the mouth, esophagus, gastric and colorectal. High intake of red meat or processed red meat was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer.
Alcohol consumption increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver and breast.
There is close association between some infections and certain cancers:
– Between hepatitis B infection and liver cancer,
– Human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer.
Screening for colon cancer by THO (occult blood test) reduce both incidence and mortality, presumably through the detection and removal of polyps.
Cytological examination of the cervix (the test BP) identification and excision of precancerous lesions cause a dramatic reduction in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer.
Chemoprevention involves the use of natural or synthetic substances to reduce the risk of cancer or to reduce the chances of relapse of cancer.
There are 5 classes of chemoprotective agents that have shown promise in clinical trials:
1 – tamoxifen (estrogen receptor modulator)
2 – nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
3 – calcium compounds
4 – glucocorticoids
5 – retinoids
1. Tamoxifen reduced by 49% cases of breast cancer in women at high risk. It is associated with serious side effects such as endometrial cancer and bleeding disorders; compare the effect of tamoxifen currently raloxifene.
Trials are underway to see whether administration of finasteride in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia may prevent prostate cancer in men over 55 years.
2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin, piroxicam, celecoxib and sulindac are studied in terms of protective effect in people with a family history of polyps or colon cancer. In 1999 F .DA approved the use of Celecoxib in familial polyposis adenomatous polyps to reduce the number. It is unclear whether reducing the number of polyps will reduce the number of new cases and deaths from colorectal cancer. Celecoxib was studied in trials in individuals with increased risk for esophageal cancer and bladder.
3. Calcium compounds are studied in the prevention of colon cancer, mainly in patients diagnosed with polyps or colon cancer.
4. Budesonide is a glucocorticoid used to treat asthma. It is used to prevent the progression of precancerous lesions in lung tissue. It utilizes spray form.
5. Retinoids are used in the prevention of cervical cancer, lung, mouth, bladder.
Prevention of lung cancer
Tobacco in any form is the major cause of lung cancer. Passive smoking is also involved in producing lung cancer. Some products like nicotine gum, nicotine spray may be useful to people trying to stop smoking.
Beta carotene increases the risk of lung cancer in smokers.
Chemoprevention is not yet standard therapy.
Breast Cancer Prevention
1. Tamoxifen is a drug that blocks the effect of estrogen on cancer cells. It was shown that tamoxifen lowers the risk of breast cancer in women at increased risk.
Fenretinide and raloxifene are two other drugs studied as breast cancer chemoprotective agents.
2. high fat diet increases the risk of breast cancer. It is unknown whether a low-fat diet prevents breast cancer. Exercise in particular young women, may decrease hormone levels and may help reduce the risk of breast cancer.
3. Weight gain in particular after natural menopause and / or age 60 years may increase the risk of breast cancer.
4. Prophylactic mastectomy in women at high risk with family history of breast cancer, bilateral mastectomy reduces the risk of breast cancer.
Prevention of cervical cancer
1. Background screening women who have not had a cytology BP (Babes Papanicolaou) regularly have an increased risk of cancer of the cervix. Regular gynecological exam for conducting cytology BP They are the most important in the prevention of cervical cancer. Abnormal changes in the cervix can be detected by cytology BP and treated before cancer.
2. Sexual History Women who began sexual activity before age 16 and women with multiple sexual partners are at increased risk of infection with HPV virus (human papilloma virus) and of developing cervical cancer. We recommend regular gynecological exam at the onset of sexual activity or at age 18. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases reduces cervical cancer risk.
3. About 30 HPV infection human papilloma virus types are sexually transmitted and can infect the cervix. Infection of the cervix with HPV is the primary risk factor for cervical cancer. However, although HPV infection is very common only a small percentage of women with untreated HPV will develop cervical cancer.
4. Smoking may be associated with an increased risk of cancer of the cervix. There are studies showing and otherwise.
5. Diet carotene, vitamin C and E may reduce the risk of cervical cancer
6. The education of women on risk factors can lead to changes in behavior and lifestyle to determine a decreased exposure to these factors.
1. Oral contraceptives Studies suggest that use of oral contraceptives can reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. The duration of oral contraceptive use is longer the more reduced the risk of ovarian cancer. Reduced risk of ovarian cancer may last long after you stop using oral contraceptives.
2. The birth and breast-feeding Women who had at least one child had a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer compared to women who never had children. Women who breast-fed children have a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer.
3. Tubal ligation with hysterectomy studies have shown that women who underwent tubal ligation with hysterectomy have a decreased risk of developing ovarian cancer.
4. Family history of ovarian cancer. A woman whose mother or sister had ovarian cancer has an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer.
5. Sometimes prophylactic oophorectomy women with a strong family history of ovarian cancer are deciding to perform prophylactic oophorectomy. It turned out that this does not reduce the risk of ovarian cancer.
6. Hormone replacement therapy is associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women. Other risk factors for ovarian cancer: the use of talcum powder in the area between the vagina and anus and high fat diet.
Uterine body cancer
1. Diet and lifestyle risk of developing cancer of the endometrium is increased in obese women. Fat diet is also associated with an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer.
2. Women with hereditary diseases of genetic hereditary nonpolipoid colorectal cancer have an increased risk of colorectal cancer.
3. The use of estrogen hormone therapy in the treatment of symptoms of menopause is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. The use of progestogens in combination with estrogen decreases the risk of endometrial cancer or atypical hyperplasia.
The use of tamoxifen increases the risk of endometrial cancer.
4. Number of children. Women who have never been pregnant have a higher risk of developing endometrial cancer than women who had children.
5. The use of oral contraceptives oral contraceptive use in postmenopausal women is associated with a decreased risk of developing endometrial cancer.
1. Tobacco, alcohol and diet. Tobacco and alcohol are risk factors for esophageal cancer. Diet low in fruits and vegetables seems to be associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer.
2. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Some studies have shown that aspirin use is associated with a reduced risk of esophageal cancer.
1. Diet and lifestyle Excessive salt intake has been identified as a possible risk factor for gastric cancer. An intake rich in fresh fruits and vegetables may be associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer. Studies have suggested that beta carotene-rich food intake and vitamin C can decrease the risk of gastric cancer, especially if intake of micronutrients is not appropriate.
2. Diseases preexisting infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. Esogastric reflux is associated with an increased risk of cancer at the junction esogastric.
Colorectal Cancer Prevention
1. Diet and lifestyle population consuming a diet rich in fat, protein, calories, alcohol, meat (both red and white as) and low in calcium and folate there is increased likelihood of colorectal cancer occur more than the population that consume a diet low in fat and high in fiber.
A diet rich in saturated fats associated with a sedentary lifestyle can increase the risk of colorectal cancer. There is evidence that smoking may be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer.
2. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Some studies have shown that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer.
3. Removing polyps in the colon may be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer.
4. Using postmenopausal hormone estrogen is associated with a decreased risk of colon cancer, but not rectal cancer.
1. Chemoprevention is the use of drugs, vitamins and other agents to reverse, suppress or prevent tumor growth.
Some studies have shown potential benefits using difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), isoflavonoids, selenium, vitamin D and E and lycopene. Further studies are needed to confirm this.
2. Diet and Lifestyle A diet rich in fats, particularly animal fats may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. An increased intake of fruits and vegetables was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer.
3. Prevention hormone finansteride studies are underway to reduce the amount of testosterone, as a preventive agent for prostate cancer.
1. Alcohol and tobacco use tobacco in any form (cigarettes, pipe, cigars) is responsible for most cancers of the mouth. Alcohol and particularly beer and liqueurs are associated with an increased risk of developing mouth cancer. Avoiding or stopping alcohol and / or tobacco will decrease the risk of cancers of the mouth.
2. Diet. A diet rich in fruits, vegetables and fiber may lower the risk of cancers of the mouth.
3. Some studies suggest that human papilloma virus may increase the risk of oral cancer.
1. Basal and squamous cell cancer Reduce exposure to ultraviolet radiation decreases the incidence of skin cancer. Ultraviolet radiation with the highest intensity is between the hours of 11-15.
Sun exposure can be reduced by changing the activities that take place outside the closed cabins to reduce exposure to ultraviolet radiation in particular between 11 and 15, wearing protective clothing, using adequate amounts of protective substances.
People who tan poorly or have burns after sun exposure are particularly susceptible to skin cancers. These people can benefit in particular protective measures.
2. Melanoma has been suggested that avoiding sunburn in childhood and adolescence can reduce the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Sunburn can be avoided by changing the activities that take place outdoors to reduce exposure to high intensity ultraviolet radiation, wearing protective clothing when exposed to sun and use protective substances. People who tan poorly or who have an abnormally high number of “moles” are at increased risk of developing cutaneous melanoma. These people benefit particularly preventive measures.